Isothiazoline derivatives are effective biocides ( antiseptic agents, preservatives, bactericides, slimicides, fungicides). The biggest application is in paint industry especially marine antifouling agent.
They are also used in adhesives, cutting oils, water systems, cosmetics, household goods and wound protectant for pruning cuts. They are also used as pulp and wood impregnating agents as well as in leather, fur and polymer process.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ANTISEPTIC AGENT
Antiseptic agent is a substance which kills or inhibits the growth of disease-causing bacteria and other microorganisms. It is essentially nontoxic to be applied to the skin or mucous membranes. (Disinfectant including cresol, bleaching powder, and phenol is in general toxic to cells of the body).
Common antiseptic agents are Benzalkonium Chloride, Cetrimide, Chlorhexidine, Hexachlorophene, Iodine Compounds, Mercury Compounds (Thimerosol), Alcohol and Hydrogen Peroxide, Hexamine Hippurate, Triclosan, Cetylpyridinium Chloride, And Dequalinium. Other substances which can be used for antiseptic purpose include Boric acid and volatile oils such as Methyl Salicylate.
Hexachlorophene and Benzalkonium Chloride are used primarily in hand or face washes. Benzalkonium Chloride must not be applied to areas which have not been fully rinsed as it is inactivated by organic compounds. Benzalkonium application many include disinfecting instruments and preservativing drugs in low concentration form.
Iodine compounds have the widest spectrum of antiinfectives against bacteria, fungi, spores, protozoa, viruses, and yeasts. Aqueous iodine are less effective than alcoholic solutions, but alcoholic component is drying and irritating to abraided skin. Povidone iodine is convenient to use as it is less irritating, but not as effective.
Chlorhexidine is used as a safe antiseptic or disinfectant to apply to prevent body infection and in oral rinses for treating sore gums and mouth ulcers and preventing plaque on teeth. It is used in the form of acetate, gluconate or hydrochloride, either alone or in combination with others such as cetrimide.
Cetrimide is an antiseptic agent with detergent properties. It has the wide spectrum of antiinfectives against bacteria and fungi. It is used as an ingredient of shampoos for treating seborrhoea and psoriasis. A very dilute solution can be applied topically for the relief of sore gums.
Hippuric Acid, an amino acid glycine, is excreted from the body and is used in urinary system drugs. Hexamine hippurates is helpful for preventing and treating infections of the urinary system; it acts by being transformed to formaldehyde.
Triclosan is a very popular antibacterial agent. It is used in hospitals for cleansing and disinfecting the skin of patients and surgeons. It is used in cosmetics, household goods and personal care products. It is also used in plastics and textiles for antibacterial activity purpose.
Cetylpyridinium chloride is used in oral rinses for cleaning mouth and treating minor throat or mouth infections and teething problems.
Dequalinium chloride is antiinfectives against bacteria and fungi. It is used in treating bacterial or fungal infections of mouth and throat.