Flame Retardant are substances that can be chemically inserted into the polymer molecule or be physically blended in polymers after polymerization to suppress, reduce, delay or modify the propagation of a flame through a plastic materials.
There are several classes of flame retardants; Halogenated Hydrocarbons (Chlorine and Bromine containing compounds and reactive flame retardants), Inorganic flame retardants ( Boron compounds, Antimony oxides, Aluminium Hydroxide, molybdenum compounds, zinc and magnesium oxides ), Phosphorous containing compounds (Organic phosphate esters, phosphates, halogenated phosphorus compounds and inorganic phosphorus containing salts).
TPP is also found as a component of hydraulic fluids and lubricant oils (WHO, 1990), and of other triaryl phosphate esters: methyl diphenyl phosphate (triphenyl phosphate content, ca. 5%); 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (ca. 5%); trixylenyl phosphate (ca. 5%); iso-decyl diphenyl phosphate (ca. 45%); cresyl diphenyl phosphate (ca. 45%); isopropyl phenyl diphenyl phosphate (ca. 45%) (Daft, 1982).
TPP was used, in Japan in 1984, as a flame-retardant in phenolics and phenylene- oxide-based resin for the manufacture of electrical and automobile components (3200 tonnes), as a non-flammable plasticizer in cellulose acetate for photographic films (500 tonnes), and for other miscellaneous purposes (50 tonnes)a.
Other uses of TPP are as a non-combustible substitute for camphor in celluloid (which renders acetylcellulose, nitrocellulose, airplane "dope", etc. stable and fireproof), for impregnating roofing paper, and as a plasticizer in lacquers and varnishes (Windholz, 1983).
Triphenyl phosphate is also used as a plasticizer in vinyl automotive upholstery (Ahrens et al., 1978) and in cellulose acetate articles (Pegum, 1966).
- Flame-retardant in in many plastics and reins especially in phenolic resin for the manufacture of electrical and automobile parts.
- Component of hydraulic fluids and lubricant oils. 繚 Non-flammable plasticizer or additive in cellulose for photographic films, polyester and polyurethane.
- Non-combustible substitute for camphor in celluloid for fireproof
- Plasticizer in lacquers and varnishes, vinyl automotive upholstery and in cellulose acetate articles.
- Impregnating agent for roofing paper